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is tomato a fruit

Interestingly, some modern varieties of tomato plants have been intentionally cultivated to stop producing seeds. Tomato plants are vines, initially decumbent, typically growing 180 cm (6 ft) or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred, generally 100 cm (3 ft 3 in) tall or shorter. [40] The U.S. Department of Agriculture's 1937 yearbook declared that "half of the major varieties were a result of the abilities of the Livingstons to evaluate and perpetuate superior material in the tomato." Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. [75], The world dedicated 4.8 million hectares in 2012 for tomato cultivation and the total production was about 161.8 million tonnes. This article explores whether tomatoes are fruits or vegetables and why they’re sometimes confused for one or the other. Genetic evidence has now shown that Linnaeus was correct to put the tomato in the genus Solanum, making Solanum lycopersicum the correct name. Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates, and cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia are specifically bred for indoor growing. [38] Today, the tomato is a critical and ubiquitous part of Middle Eastern cuisine, served fresh in salads (e.g., Arab salad, Israeli salad, Shirazi salad and Turkish salad), grilled with kebabs and other dishes, made into sauces, and so on. [citation needed] Tomatoes were grown mainly as ornamentals early on after their arrival in Italy. While individual breeding efforts can produce useful results, the bulk of tomato breeding work is at universities and major agriculture-related corporations. Although they have a lot in common, fruits and vegetables also have some distinct differences. [citation needed] The tree developed a disease and was removed in April 2010 after about 13 months of life.[80]. info), meaning "fat water" or "fat thing"). Whether you knew this already or not, the fact that tomatoes are fruits, not vegetables, is a source of puzzlement. [97], In Ontario, Canada, member of provincial parliament Mike Colle introduced a private member's bill in March 2016 to name the tomato as the official vegetable of the province and to designate 15 July as Tomato Day, in order to acknowledge the tomato's importance in Ontario's agriculture.

Flowers in domestic cultivars can be self-fertilizing. In 1870, Livingston introduced the Paragon, and tomato culture soon became a great enterprise in the county. There is no hard-and-fast rule that clearly designates a botanical fruit as a vegetable, but, given that tomatoes are generally not used in desserts and are closely related to other fruit-vegetables (e.g., eggplants and peppers), it is not too counterintuitive for tomatoes to be classified as vegetables. Thus, roots, tubers, stems, flower buds, leaves, and certain botanical fruits, including green beans, pumpkins, and of course tomatoes, are all considered vegetables by nutritionists. The tomato was introduced to China, likely via the Philippines or Macau, in the 1500s. Tomatoes aren’t the only foods that struggle with this kind of identity crisis.

This change occurred after discovery of a mutant "u" phenotype in the mid 20th century that ripened "u"niformly. In 1887, U.S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables, but not on fruit, caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. For other uses, see, Edible berry of the tomato plant, Solanum lycopersicum, The Aztecs, Richard F. Townsend [Thames and Hudson:London], revised edition 2000 (p. 180-1), 'LOVE-APPLE, or TOMATO BERRY.-Love apples are now to be seen in great abundance at all our vegetable markets.
Now, nutritionally, the term “fruit” is used to describe sweet and fleshy botanical fruits, and “vegetable” is used to indicate a wide variety of plant parts that are not so high in fructose. The earliest discussion of the tomato in European literature appeared in a herbal written in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli, an Italian physician and botanist, who suggested that a new type of eggplant had been brought to Italy that was blood red or golden color when mature and could be divided into segments and eaten like an eggplant—that is, cooked and seasoned with salt, black pepper, and oil. [64], Tomato plants can protect asparagus from asparagus beetles, because they contain solanine that kills this pest,[citation needed] while asparagus plants contain Asparagusic acid that repels nematodes known to attack tomato plants. Tomatoes, plums, zucchinis, and melons are all edible fruits, but things like maple “helicopters” and floating dandelion puffs are fruits too. The poor taste and lack of sugar in modern garden and commercial tomato varieties resulted from breeding tomatoes to ripen uniformly red. 2004Q-0201)", "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to lycopene and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage (ID 1608, 1609, 1611, 1662, 1663, 1664, 1899, 1942, 2081, 2082, 2142, 2374), protection of the skin from UV-induced (including photo-oxidative) damage (ID 1259, 1607, 1665, 2143, 2262, 2373), contribution to normal cardiac function (ID 1610, 2372), and maintenance of normal vision (ID 1827) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006", "Queen's Park This Week: Will new carding rules make a difference? Pollination and fruit formation depend on meiosis. Scientifically speaking, a tomato is definitely a fruit. The potent chloroplasts in the dark-green shoulders of the U phenotype are beneficial here, but have the disadvantage of leaving green shoulders near the stems of the ripe fruit, and even cracked yellow shoulders, apparently because of oxidative stress due to overload of the photosynthetic chain in direct sunlight at high temperatures.

Melissa Petruzzello is Assistant Editor of Plant and Environmental Science and covers a range of content from plants, algae, and fungi, to renewable energy and environmental engineering. The tomato was introduced to cultivation in the Middle East by John Barker, British consul in Aleppo circa 1799 to 1825. In fact, the US Supreme Court ruled in 1893 that the tomato should be classified as a vegetable on the basis of its culinary applications. Arthritis has no known cure, but there are plenty of myths about foods that can ease your symptoms — or make them worse. [26] The Spanish first introduced tomatoes to Europe, where they became used in Spanish food. [76]

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