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applications of microwaves

Microwave energy overcomes the problem of very high heat transfer and conduction resistances, leading to higher drying rates.

As the food industry does not disclose all its production processes, we cannot expect this list to be complete.

By Mohamed S. Shaheen, Khaled F. El-Massry, Ahmed H. El-Ghorab and Faqir M. Anjum, Submitted: December 18th 2011Reviewed: April 15th 2012Published: November 7th 2012, Home > Books > The Development and Application of Microwave Heating, The Development and Application of Microwave Heating. As a result, the losses of water and aroma are coupled. Applications of Microwaves in the field of Power A microwave passes (non-ionizing) microwave radiation (at a frequency near 2.45 GHz) through food, causing dielectric... Microwave heating is used in industrial processes for drying and curing products. Only a relatively low number of microwave applications can be found in actual industrial production, compared with their indisputable high potential. One difficulty to be overcome was a microwavable baking pan, which is sufficiently heat resistant and not too expensive for commercial use.

Whereas the first applications were only temporarily successful, since the quality enhancement due to the microwave process could quickly be achieved by a more economic improvement of the conventional technique, the other techniques survived and are still successful in industrial application. Some of the advantages compared with conventional heating methods include speed of operation, energy savings, precise process controls and faster start-up and shut-down times (Kidmose and Martens, 1999). Sub-atmospheric pressure, when applied to the steam blanching process, reduces the amount of oxygen and therefore results in a lower degradation of vegetable pigments and nutrients.

Due to the corresponding product properties either conveyor belt systems or continuous resonator systems are invented. conventional, infrared or air jet) heating systems should enhance their potential for a complete cooking device, that could replace conventional ovens. This way of product enhancement is called product engineering or formulation. The most prominent advantages of microwave heating are the reachable acceleration and time savings and the possible volume instead of surface heating.

For fast drying conditions (high microwave energy input) only the small amount of volatile essential oils that is dissolved is lost, whereas there is not enough time to resolve the remaining oil in the separated phase (Erle, 2000). Microwaves are used to carry telephone calls and television channels as digital signals from ground … The samples were previously treated in a microwave oven at specific times, using different potency levels: high, medium and low, which correspond to 770, 560 and 240 watts, respectively. Appearance, bacteriological condition and weight loss are important if the material is to be sold in the thawed condition but are less so if it is for processing. Reasons mentioned for the failure of industrial microwave applications range from high energy costs, which have to be counterbalanced by higher product qualities, over the conservatism of the food industry and relatively low research budgets, to the lack of microwave engineering knowledge and of complete microwave heating models and their calculation facilities. During this period the surface is kept wet by the constant capillary-driven flow of water from within the particle. Studies of microwave assisted pasteurization and sterilization have been motivated by the fast and effective microwave heating of many foods containing water or salts. Also, because microwaves penetrate the sample, heating is accomplished in the interior of the food. The breakthrough of microwave technology in the food industry due to its high potential has been predicted many times before, but it has been delayed every time up to now. Moreover, the existing regulation does not always allow all kind of waste material to be recycled, especially if harmful or hazardous materials are involved (Oda et al., 1992). If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices.

Applications of Microwave: To cook food as it cause water and fat molecules to vibrate, which makes the substances hot.

There are a wide variety of applications for Microwaves, which are not possible for other radiations. Food processing and rubber manufacture involve relatively high-volume, continuous processing. Due in large part to the overwhelming success of microwave ovens for home use, microwave processing is seen by the unwary as a panacea for all heating applications. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too.

Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. Microwave heating involves conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat by selective absorption and dissipation.

Blanching with hot water after the microwave treatment compensates for any lack of heating uniformity that may have taken place, and also prevents desiccation or shriveling of delicate vegetables. Blanching is an important step in the industrial processing of fruits and vegetables. However, as previous sections of this report have shown, not all materials and processes … Additional to the references in the text the interested reader is also referred to two bibliographies that cover more or less all the published work on microwaves (W.H.O, 2012). By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Microwave ovens are commonplace in households and are established there as devices of everyday use. Figure 2 shows the activity of mushroom polyphenol oxidase in a phosphate buffer 0.05M solution. And while microwave blanching alone provides a fresh vegetable flavor, the combination with initial water or steam blanching provides an economic advantage. The possibly high and nearly homogeneous heating rates, also in solid foods (heat generation within the food) and the corresponding short process times, which helps preserving a very high quality yield advantages of microwave compared to conventional techniques. Thus, a process allowing selective treatment of the "unwanted" portion of the waste, and to do this volumetrically, could represent an enormous advantage in terms of time and money, especially as far as materials presenting low thermal conductivity are concerned (Marucci et al., 2000). The main purpose of this process is to inactivate the enzyme systems that may cause color, flavor and textural changes, such as peroxidase, polyphenol-oxidase, lipoxygenase and pectin enzymes. The development of dielectric heating applications in food industry started in the radio frequency range in the 1930s (Püschner, 1966). One main advantage is the place where the heat is generated, namely the product itself. In selecting a thawing or tempering system for industrial use a balance must be struck between thawing time, appearance and bacteriological condition of the product, processing problems such as effluent disposal, and the capital and operating costs of the respective systems. Fish is normally in plate frozen slabs; fruit and vegetables in boxes, bags or tubs; and juice in large barrels. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. The possible avoidance of case hardening, due to more homogeneous drying without large moisture gradients is another advantage. Microwave- vacuum drying is being used for meat extract and, at least for a number of years, for the production of a powder made from orange juice concentrate. Lower temperatures (e.g. The first major applications were finish drying of potato chips, pre-cooking of poultry and bacon, tempering of frozen food and drying of pasta (Decareau, 1985). Cloudflare Ray ID: 5f14116d0d2f8d21 • Conventional thawing and tempering systems supply heat to the surface and then rely on conduction to transfer that heat into the centre of the product.

Leaching and degradation of nutritive components, such as sugars, minerals and vitamins, may occur when blanching with water or steam.

Applications of Microwaves Communication • Before the advent of fiber-optic transmission, most long distance telephone calls were carried via microwave point-to-point links through sites like the AT&T Long Lines. by the help of microwaves on industrial scale can be found. Microwave vacuum drying with pressures above the triple point of water has more commercial potential has microwave vacuum drying with pressures above the triple point of water.

The rather slow spread of food industrial microwave applications has a number of reasons: there is the conservatism of the food industry (Decareau, 1985) and its relatively low research budget. Antenna gain is proportional to the electrical size of the antenna. Wifi also uses microwaves. Another advantage of this technique is the valuable by-product namely rendered fat of high quality, which is used as food flavoring (Schiffmann, 1986). Microwave drying is not common in the food industry. ), can be regarded as a multi-component material having a wide range of compositions, and usually it is the presence of only some of these components that makes all the mixture a product to be disposed of. However, we think that the potential of microwave technology in the food industry is far from being exhausted.

Microwave assisted freeze drying is well studied, but no commercial industrial application can be found, due to high costs and a small market for freeze dried food products (Knutson et al., 1987). Unfortunately, in industry the distribution of microwave processes is still far away from such high numbers. Microwaves can be an interesting candidate to fulfill the need for this kind of processes, and this is particularly true if the matrix of the waste materials exhibits dielectric properties significantly different from those of the unwanted components. Different from conventional heating systems, where satisfactory results can be achieved easily by intuition, good microwave application results often do need a lot of knowledge or experience to understand and moderate effects like uneven heating or the thermal runaway. Frozen meat, as supplied to the industry, ranges in size and shape from complete hindquarters of beef to small breasts of lamb and poultry portions, although the majority of the material is `boned-out' and packed in boxes approximately 15 cm thick weighing between 20 and 40 kg. Khraisheh et al. Nevertheless, microwave heating has a number of quantitative and qualitative advantages over conventional heating techniques that make its adoption a serious proposition. Blanching has additional benefits, such as the cleansing of the product, the decreasing of the initial microbial load, exhausting gas from the plant tissue, and the preheating before processing. Quality can often be improved further by the use of vacuum. Starting in the early 1950s, frequency division multiplex was used to send up to 5,400 telephone channels on each microwave radio channel, with as many as ten radio channels combined into one … Microwave heating is attractive for heating of foods due to its origin within the material, fast temperature rise, controllable heat deposition, and easy clean-up.

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